Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Is the Domino Theory in Regards to Communism

The Domino Theory was a metaphor for the spread of communism, as articulated by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower in an April 7, 1954 news conference.   The United States had been rattled by the so-called loss of China to the communist side in 1949, as a result of Mao Zedong and the Peoples Liberation Armys triumph over Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War.   This followed close after the establishment of the communist state of North Korea in 1948, which resulted in the Korean War (1950-1953). The First Mention of the Domino Theory In the news conference, Eisenhower expressed concern that communism  could spread across Asia and even toward Australia and New Zealand.   As Eisenhower explained, once the first domino fell (meaning China), What will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly...Asia, after all, has already lost some 450 million of its peoples to the Communist dictatorship, and we simply cant afford greater losses. Eisenhower fretted that Communism would inevitably spread to Thailand and the rest of Southeast Asia if it got past the so-called island defensive chain of Japan, Formosa (Taiwan), of the Philippines and to the southward. He then mentioned the supposed threat to Australia and New Zealand. In the event, none of the island defensive chain became communist, but parts of Southeast Asia did. With their economies ravaged by decades of European imperial exploitation, and with cultures that placed higher value on societal stability and prosperity over individual striving, the leaders of countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos viewed communism as a potentially viable way to re-establish their countries as independent nations. Eisenhower and later American leaders, including  Richard Nixon, used this theory to justify US intervention in Southeast Asia, including escalation of the  Vietnam War. Although the anti-communist South Vietnamese and their American allies lost the Vietnam War to the communist forces of the North Vietnamese army and the  Viet Cong, the falling dominoes stopped after Cambodia and Laos. Australia and New Zealand never considered becoming communist states. Is Communism Contagious? In summary, the Domino Theory is basically a contagion theory of political ideology.   It rests on the assumption that countries turn to communism because they catch it from a neighboring country as if it were a virus. In some sense, that can happen -- a state that is already communist may support a communist insurgency across the border in a neighboring state. In more extreme cases, such as the Korean War, a communist country may actively invade a capitalist neighbor in hopes of conquering it and adding it to the communist fold. However, the Domino Theory seems to posit the belief that simply being next to a communist country makes it inevitable that a given nation will become infected with communism. Perhaps this is why Eisenhower believed that island nations would be relatively more able to hold the line against Marxist/Leninist or Maoist ideas. However, this is a very simplistic view of how nations adopt new ideologies. If communism spreads like the common cold, by this theory Cuba should have managed to steer clear.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Impact of Advertising on Perceived Gender Roles

The role and function of advertising is a debatable one. Most would argue that since it is not intended to be a governmental aid in ensuring and creating opportunities for equality, we are unable to expect such efforts to be made within this industry. Advertisers have the job of selling, to persuade and increase consumption as to satisfy the capitalist’s pockets. The play on social injustice often associated with this particular industry makes it relevant to question it though. Male dominance in this area is evident, but are we not even to view men and women as equal in terms of being potential consumers? As illustrated by Spurlock and this piece of research, it is extremely difficult to not involve advertisement in vocabulary and certain approaches to societal understanding. The present branding culture is apparent and it is close to impossible to not have an opinion regarding this matter, which incidentally causes discussion and debate, which in turn furthers the word of mouth usage of brands. The impact of advertising on perceived gender roles is quite evident, and with plenty of consequences, some of which we might not yet have experienced the full effect of. It is important to remember that with a socialized consumer identity, the choices we make are not individual ones, but is initiated by the manipulative skills of â€Å"others†. The high extent of advertisement we are put through on a daily basis makes it very difficult to reflect upon the idea of choices and individualShow MoreRelatedImpact Of Media On Gender And The Media1303 Words   |  6 PagesImpact of Media on Gender Annie Hernandez Keiser University August 13, 2014 Abstract Boys and girls have for long spans of time considered themselves to be different. The media and advertising has played a significant role to make sure that they influence the way that boys and girls view themselves. Society has always had a main focus on getting people to behave in certain ways, the media has been magnificent at causing each gender to classify themselves in particular waysRead MoreAdvertising Advertisements And Body Image1645 Words   |  7 Pagesguidance note, approved by the EASA Board in 2009, is designed to assist the advertising industry and SROs in ensuring that women and men continue to be portrayed positively and responsibly in advertising. History - WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENTS AND BODY IMAGE Authors have also attempted to correlate various demographic variables such as age and education, as well as geographic variables with preferences for role portrayals in advertising. Through the ages men have been considered to be financial providers,Read MoreMarketing Research Topics1249 Words   |  5 Pagesaugmentation: variables affecting the time spent in dining experience A comparative study on application of advertising through cell phone framework among various types of goods and services Market entry strategy in an emerging market using Country of Origin information Impact of brand awareness on consumer/brand loyalty: A study of packages milk brands Characteristics of customer loyalty: impact of brand image or product characteristics/attributes – A study of packaged milk brands Effect of self-placementRead MoreThe Dimensions Of Guerilla Marketing1457 Words   |  6 Pagessurprise, humor, clarity, and emotional arousal on the consumer purchase intention. Creativity Creativity is regarded as an effective tool in advertising to get through the media clutter, attract consumers’ attention, create an impression and lead to more effectiveness of an advertising campaign (Till Baack, 2015).There are different perspectives on advertising creativity at one hand, people viewed that ad is creative if it sells the product, others viewed the ad. is creative if it wins awards, ratherRead MoreSexism in Advertising and General Media Essays898 Words   |  4 PagesWhat kind of an impact does the constant bombardment of degrading imagery have on an audience? Does it really make a difference on the consumption patterns of the audience? The concepts of gender and sex, however used interchangeably, have unlike definitions. Sex is a biologically determined factor: one’s body can be male or female. Gender is a culturally determined factor: one can be masculine or feminine. Gender roles are the general beliefs our culture has that constitute gender. Stereotypes inRead MoreThe Effects Of Media On Gay Male Body Image1209 Words   |  5 Pagesphysique that negatively impact on its audiences. They had conducted a research to study the impact between media imageries and its audience’s perceptional change in body image by utilizing objectification theory. The result suggested that the media imageries were internalized by gay men which negatively affect their body image. 8) Rutledge, S. E., Siebert, D. C., Chonody, J., Killian, M. (2011). Information about human sexuality: sources, satisfaction, and perceived knowledge among college studentsRead MoreEffect Of Gender And Gender Representation On Media1735 Words   |  7 PagesThe effect of gender and gender representation in media has been widely researched in various academic disciplines, including anthropology and communication studies. Similar gender role expectations are not just restricted to Western culture either. A study on gender representation in East Asian advertising by Michael Prieler is a demonstration of the influence of gendered communication. The research examines the male and female representation in the advertising of East Asian countries like HongRead MoreHumor and Persuasion1318 Words   |  6 Pageshumorous or a joker of sorts? Many people feel they have what it takes to bring humor to different situations. Usually humor is used to lighten a mood or attitude and often makes people feel happy. Understanding that humor can play a very important role in speech enhance the awareness of the proper means and tactics in which to use humor. Persuasion often includes various forms of humor where the person trying to persuade intertwines the humor effect and brings lightness to the situation. PersuasionRead MoreThe Social Construction Of Reality1128 Words   |  5 Pagesabout social status being â€Å"the recognizable social position you occupy whether it is by race, class, occupation, age, religion, etc.† (Fox 07/07/15). Social Construction affect everyone’s life and decisions and it also plays a very important role on gender and stereotyping men and women as opposites. Individuals in all society may define masculinity and femininity as what they were taught when they’re growing up but of course we have different notions and opinions about it by how we were perceivingRead MoreGender, Age And Culture957 Words   |  4 PagesApplying an Holistic Perspective to Gender, Age and Culture Sex is defined as biological, and has been almost exclusively perceived as binary—based on male (XY) or female (XX) chromosomes. In fact, within the strictly biological interpretation, sex is not binary—intersexed people are born more frequently than many suspect (Caplan and Caplan, 6), but due to the gender constructs within most societies, these people are often hidden in the mainstream binary system, though this need not be the case

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Critically evaluate Pinkers claim that music is auditory...

Critically evaluate Pinker s claim that music is auditory cheesecake: Pinker’s metaphorical expression for music was â€Å"auditory cheesecake†, explaining that he considered this function â€Å"useless[as a biological adaptation]† (Pinker 1997, p.528). Perhaps avid listeners comfort feed their minds with acoustic cheesecake, but musical knowledge presents the impact of such sweetness goes far beyond just licking the spoon. Extracting Pinker’s perspective, this essay will discuss whether music is valuable in the survival of humans. Arguments will be derived from brain imaging findings to examine its biological predisposition, adaptionist view to seek out its evolutionary status and whether the environment is responsible for demoting music.†¦show more content†¦This is because Music is a high cortical function, thus maintenance is costly. Transmitting this energy required for immediate survival needs should have reduced the function of music in future generations of such populations. As a result, it would be expected that music is culture specific, yet on the contrary, it is enjoyed universally. Therefore music attains the status of necessity. Zahavi’s (1975, in Miller 2000)Handicap theory conceptualizes the purpose of music. The theory stresses that sexual traits usually posses a risk to survival.; suggesting music is a biological adaption for the purpose of Sexual selection(Darwin, 1871, in Patel 2010). Miller (2000) interprets Music as an aesthetic display and indicator for fitness. Musical activities such as â€Å"dancing† represents health, â€Å"voice control...self confidence for status†, â€Å"Rhythmic† engagement shows ability to identify patterns and â€Å"melodic creativity† which assists initiation for social communication(Miller 2000, p.10). This handicapping, sexual trait may be useful for reproductive success but attempting to gain excessive aesthetic display can lead to dire consequences. Jimi Hendrix, famous guitarist, died at 27 years from drug overdose which he used to â€Å"spark his musical imagination† (Miller, 2000, p.2). Hendrix’s fatal actions can be explained by the neural overlap between effects of drug and music, making music a possible threat to survival(Blood and

Analysis of Ronald Reagans Sppech, The Challenger Disaster

While seated in the Oval Office of the White house, January 28, 1986 President Ronald Reagan delivers his speech The Challenger Disaster; hours after the space shuttle The Challenger explodes while in take off. Thousands witnessed this horrifying event live in person and on television. This mission was very unique allowing the first civilian to ever be allowed in space during a mission. She was aboard The Challenger as an observer in the NASA Teacher in Space Program. Ironically, nineteen years before this disaster, three astronauts were tragically lost in an accident on the ground. President Reagan remembers those astronauts that were lost not only the day of the disaster, but also those who were lost nineteen years before. He conducts†¦show more content†¦This speech has meaning, excites emotions and reaches out to all, which makes it a great speech. Although Reagan chooses to ignore his administrations responsibility in The Challenger disaster, he concentrates instead on reassurance of the nation which makes this speech uplifting to the American people. Invention To do a rhetorical analysis of this speech we would follow the Neo-Aristotelian approach. The Neo-Aristotelian approach consists of five canons which are invention, organization, style, memory and delivery. First I will start off with Invention. According to Foss the critics concern in applying the canon of invention is with the speakers major ideas, line of argument, or content (29). Invention is divided into two categories: external proofs and internal proofs. External proofs include sources used by the author but does not create, including testimony of eyewitnesses (Foss 29). I will focus on the internal proofs of this speech, which are logos or logical argument; ethos, the appeal of the speakers character and pathos, emotional appeal. In the speech of The Challenger Disaster Reagan does not necessarily present an argument, but rather a speech to console and find meaning. He starts the speech by recognizing the terrible accident that happened nineteen years ago and relates it to T he Challenger disaster. The events are factual and therefore are logical to be included in the opening of this speech. To begin the

Power Struggles in Society Free Essays

Mills, Schudson, and Gitlin show different approaches to society and the role of mass media. Each approach helps illustrate a different focus on society. They each hold special relevance in a discussion of the history of societal beliefs. We will write a custom essay sample on Power Struggles in Society or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Mass Society refers to the overall belief C. Wright Mills held in relation to the type of society he believed we live in. Mills began The Power Elite with a bold statement saying, â€Å"The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday words in which they live, yet even in these rounds of job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither understand nor govern† (Mills, 1956, p. 3). This opening sentence helps describe the attitude and beliefs of the entire book. A â€Å"power elite† exists in a society that is made up of three spheres. They are divided into economy, political, and military, with the same group of people interchanging between the three. This large group of elite is at the top making all the decisions, while the masses are at the bottom, unaware of the process that molds public opinion. Masses within this view of society are irrelevant and do not have any type of influence. The media functions as an entertainment source, keeping the masses entertained while the elite is taking care of all the important matters. It helps keep the reality and truth of the world obscured from the masses. Mills explained what the media does for the masses as â€Å"they distract him and obscure his chance to understand himself or his world, by fastening his attention upon artificial frenzies that are revolved within the program framework, usually by violent action or by what is called humor† (Mills, p. 315). This helps illuminate how the mass media guides, tries to control, and manipulates the masses. Mills describes the effect of mass media as â€Å"a sort of psychological illiteracy† to the extent that we â€Å"often do not believe what we see before us until we read about it in the paper or hear about it on the radio† (Mills, p. 311). The masses â€Å"standards of credulity, standards of reality, tend to be set by these media rather than by ‘the masses’ own fragmentary experience† (Mills p. 311). Mass media’s role helps prevent the questioning of the elite. â€Å"Families and churches and schools adapt to modern life; governments and armies and corporations shape it; and, as they do so, they turn these lesser institutions into means for their ends† (Mills, p. 6). The family into which someone was born or marries into helps improve or decrease their social status. The school where one is educated or the church where one worships also plays a major role in the social standing. Schools teach skills to the masses that enable them to function in society. Institutions shape life and the masses adapt to what institutions create. The masses in the theory are very disorganized and not connected to others. An excellent way to describe to masses can be shown by watching The Twilight Zone movie. It is a state of total confusion for everyone, with each doing their own thing. The elite enjoy the state of confusion with the masses, because they are able to control the major decisions that must be made. They determine the policies and the people enlist in them. In the mass society, the elite control the policies and ways of thinking for the confused masses. Schudson approaches the nature of society in a much different way, through the idea of the democratic society. In Discovering the News, he discussed â€Å"an even distribution of income† and described the 1800’s as â€Å"more people acquired wealth and political power ‘bringing’ with them a zeal for equal opportunity that led to the expansion of public education† (Schudson, 1978, p. 44). When looking at society as a whole, you have them socially, economically, and politically integrated. Economic development was promoted and shared by many rather than few† (Schudson, p. 45). The press does not cause, but picks up elements, reflects, and builds from a democratic society. â€Å"The democratization of economic life brought with it attitudes that stressed economic gain to the exclusion of social aims; business practice more regularly began to reward s trictly economic ties over broader ones† (Schudson, p. 46). Schudson believed that society was grounded in the perception of society, with the middle class dominating and developing. Media’s relationship with its audience helped sustain them, but it did not create the worldview. The media cannot be proven to have many effects on society, and the ones that exist have to do with advertising as a cultural institution. Advertising functions more as a way of celebrating products and buying. It functions to remind and refocus as it orients people to the world and let them know that others share the same views. Advertising reminds us of things in society and reinforces some social trends. The trends and cultural symbols make us aware while reminding us of what we already know. Objectivity occurred in writings as a response to a problem, not as a correct way to see the world. â€Å"As our minds become deeply aware of their own subjectivism, we find a zest in objective method that is not otherwise there† (Schudson, p. 151). Objectivity developed in response to crisis, when journalism became so overwhelmed with subjectivity. There are three views in reference to objectivity. â€Å"The first view, then, holds that form conceals content in the news story. A second position is that form constitutes content, that the form of the news story incorporates its own bias. A third sees the form of a news story, not as a literacy form, but as a social form tightly constrained by the routines of new gathering† (Schudson, pp. 184-185). The â€Å"moral wars† in journalism showed each class held differing beliefs on what was acceptable. The Times wrote a speech by Reverend Dr. W. H. P. Faunce saying: â€Å"The press engages in a fearful struggle, one class against another. On one side stands the reputable papers and on the other, is what calls itself the new journalism, but which is in reality as old as sin itself† (Schudson, p. 114). Class conflict was the main reason for problems inside the newspaper industry. Different societal classes produced different types of newspapers. Schudson tracks the middle class because he fells it is the most important. He said the press emerged to serve the middle class audience. Schudson said the political aspects of society went from public to private. Reality was public, but became more concerned with what the individual was thinking instead of what everyone was thinking. Voting was one area effected by this new political and reality change. People began to vote in secrecy, such as in the separate voting booth presently used. This new secrecy allowed people to make decisions on their own instead of relying on others. Gitlin discusses how many aspects of society are the result of hegemony, defined as â€Å"the name given to a ruling class’s domination through ideology, through the shaping of popular consent† (Gitlin, 1980, p. 9). â€Å"Hegemony is a historical process in which one picture of the world is systematically prefered over others, usually through practical routines and at times through extraordinary measures† (Gitlin, p. 57). Society is maintained by hegemony instead of class structure. This type of society is possible because it has a common reality, shared language, common cultural forms like mass media, shared government, common education and religion, and common transportation. Hegemony says we live in a society where all ideas are not treated equally. As a result, we are predisposed to accept some views and slower to accept others. It is not a conspiracy theory but it holds that everyone is doing their job. The ideas of the dominant in society are being told. If someone outside the dominate group feels their idea is right, they must do something out of the ordinary to get attention. The dominate class is not particularly the elite or the middle class, but it is the group whose ideas are most important to be heard in society. We grow up in a world that already has meaning; we must therefore decide where we belong. In return, society produces the kind of people it needs. Many people spend their lives trying to figure out where to belong. The routines of journalists are the main way standardized frames are put into reporting. These routines are structured in the ways journalists are socialized from childhood, and then trained, recruited, assigned, edited, rewarded, and promoted on the job; they decisively shape the ways in which news is defined, events are considered newsworthy, and ‘objectivity’ is secured† (Gitlin, pp. 11-12). People think the world is being reported, but it is actually being created. Mills, Schudson, an d Gitlin share few beliefs in relation to the nature of society. Each believes that separate social classes exist and that each class relates to society in a much different way. They also agree that problems do occur within society and its current division, but at that point their beliefs begin to diverge. Mills and Gitlin are the most similar among the three. They both believe there is a separation between one dominate class and the masses. Mills believes the one dominate is the elite and Gitlin does not feel it is any particular social class. Schudson, on the other hand, believes there are separate classes with the middle the most important. The most persuasive is a combination of Schudson and Gitlin. Different times make the separation on which is most important. Schudson is correct in saying the media and society play off each other. Things which occur in society would not be made as important without the media stressing its importance and society tuning in to hear the details. Gitlin is also very true in his beliefs of hegemony with a ruling class being dominate over society. The world in which we live is very centered around the fact that one group’s ideas are heard through the media more often than that of others. The nature of society is explained differently when looking at Mills, Schudson, and Gitlin. Each person is very persuasive in the views they express. There are also weaknesses that exist in some of the views. Gitlin’s hegemony comes across as the most persuasive of the ideas. It can explain most things in society that the other two cannot. Society is complex in every way, but hegemony helps make it more simple to understand. References Gitlin, Todd. (1980). The Whole World Is Watching. Berkeley: University of California Press. Mills, C. Wright. (1956). The Power Elite. London: Oxford University Press. Schudson, Micheal. (1978). Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. USA: Basic Books. How to cite Power Struggles in Society, Papers

Paul Simon - You#39re the One free essay sample

When first listening to Paul Simons latest album,Youre the One, you are left to wonder if, at age 58, Simon hasfinally lost his musical touch. On second listen, however, the mostlyautobiographical songs begin to resonate. Youre the Onefeatures the 10-piece band Simon has worked with for several years. Gone are theyouthful, upbeat songs such as Hearts and Bones; Simon introduces anew side of his musical spectrum with a meditative flavor. Apost-middle-aged husband and father perspective has replaced what defined hiscareer and was apparent in Mrs. Robinson, and Me and JulioDown by the School Yard. Matters of family and mortality course throughYoure the One. On the jazzy Darling Lorraine,Simon recounts the flow of a lifelong relationship that culminates in the deathof ones spouse. Similarly, Senorita With a Necklace of Tearsexplores love, pain and regret that accompany failed relationships. One of themost poignant aspects of Youre the One is the sense of joy andpossibility. We will write a custom essay sample on Paul Simon You#39re the One or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Paul Simon has brought a new perspective to his music, andthough it is a different and mature view of life, his gift for empathy and hiseye for detail serve him well. In this album, Paul Simon finds the spot wherewisdom and play intersect.

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Kate Chopin Essays (1045 words) - Literature, Fiction,

Kate Chopin Kate Chopin gives a great deal of thought in her literature to issues that she views as important. She was encouraged not to become a "useless" wife; she was also involved in the idea of becoming an independent woman (LeBlanc 1). Kate Chopin is a well-known American writer. Kate Chopin was born on February 8, 1851, in St. Louis, Missouri. At the age of 53, on August 22, 1904, she died due to cerebral hemorrhage (Hoffman 1-2). Kate is the daughter of Eliza Faris O'Flaherty and Thomas O'Flaherty. Her father was a well-established merchant, who took part in many business investments. He is one of the founders of the Pacific Railroad, and was on the train when it crashed into the Gasconade River, in 1885. Her mother Eliza, was a member of a very elite social group, in their French-Creole community. After Kate's father passed away, her mother became much more religious, and develops a closer relationship with Kate. Kate also has an older half-brother, George O'Flaherty. He was a Confederate solider in the Civil War, and in 1863 was captured by the Union forces, and dies of typhoid fever while in prison. Kate spent her childhood in St. Louis Missouri (Hoffman 1). Kate Chopin was only married once, and it was to Oscar Chopin, a prosperous cotton farmer. The two were married one June 9, 1870, after a yearlong courtship. Kate and Oscar had six children, five boys and one girl. Jean was born in 1871, Oscar Jr. in 1873, George in 1874, Frederick in 1876, Felix in 1878 and Lelia in 1879(Hoffman 1-2). When his cotton business failed they moved to Cloutierville, a small town in Louisiana. They were married for 12 ? years. In 1882 Oscar died of Malaria, and Kate raised the children on her own. Two years after Oscar died Kate and her children moved in with her mother. Less than a year later her mother died and she was on her own again. Kate received a formal education at the Academy of the Sacred Heart in St. Louis. She enjoys music, reading, writing, French and German. She became fluent in both languages. Later in her life she continues her education by studying biology and anthropology. Kate Chopin is known to be an extremely smart woman. (Toth 116) In addition to writing the only other career Kate Chopin has, is being a housewife. She was very busy taking care of her husband, and their six children. When Kate's mother died, she became very depressed, and began confiding in her personal physician, Dr. Frederick Kolbenheyer. Dr. Kolbenheyer gave Kate the idea to begin writing. Her first published work is "If It Might Be", which was published in 1889. Kate wrote novels, poetry, and short stories. She wrote a total of twenty-nine pieces of literature. She wrote twenty pieces of fiction, three short stories, and six novels. Some of her works are, "If It Might Be" published in 1889, "A Point at Issue" published in 1889, Story of an Hour published in 1894, A Night in Acadie published in 1896, The Storm published in 1897, The Awakening published in 1897, Young Dr. Grosse published in 1899, and "The Gentleman from New Orleans" published in 1900 (Louisiana Educational Authority 1-3). Kate Chopin's "The Storm" is one of Kate Chopin's less famous short stories. Her creative use of theme and symbolism throughout "The Storm", is what makes it such a descriptive and detailed short story. She discusses sexuality using the elements of theme and symbolism. In "The Storm," the theme, feminine sexuality and passion is important. Robert W. Wilson, a critic, says: The title of "The Storm," with its obvious connotations of sexual energy and passion, is of course critical to any interpretation of the narrative. Chopin's title refers to nature, which is symbolically feminine; the storm can therefore be seen as symbolic of feminine sexuality and passion, and the image of the storm will be returned to again and again throughout the story. (Wilson 1) Chopin talks about sex, as if it is enjoyable, which is very inappropriate for this time period. This quote shows an example of sex being made enjoyable "When he touched her breasts they gave them selves up in quivering ecstasy, inviting his lips. Her mouth was a fountain of delight. And when he possessed her, they seemed to swoon together at the very borderland of life's mystery" (Chopin 3-4). The affair that takes place during the storm, between two married people, does not ruin either of their marriages, but instead strengthens